Posts tagged dogs
Posts tagged dogs
"what? i was just stretching my legs"
So dogs do the ‘I meant to do that’ thing, too, huh? XD
THIS EVIL CREATURE
THEYRE NOT NICE
Pit bulls are not born mean or cruel or vicious. It’s the humans that abuse and mistreat them that make them that way.
Too fucking right!!!
More people need to understand that. Animals are not inherently evil, and do not deserve the reputation they’ve been given because of having terrible humans.
Remember how pit bulls were originally used to protect small kids? Because yeah, that was a thing. Even pit bulls used for dog fights almost always show no aggression towards humans, and many learn to accept other dogs after proper rehabilitation. Any dog might be violent toward other dogs if not socialized at a young age anyway.
Don’t touch without permission
THIS IS A PUPPY IT’S NOT EVEN A FULL-GROWN DOG AND IT UNDERSTANDS “NO” IT IS NOT EVEN A YEAR OLD AND YOU’RE TELLING ME TEENAGE BOYS AND MEN CAN’T UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF “NO.” THAT IS BULLSHIT.
Alaskan Malamute Puppies
Dog eating in slow motion.
this is really important
You cannot scroll past this
A safe place to play
Pack of Dogs Playing Cards by John Littleboy
John Littleboy is a self-proclaimed “artist of all things inky-dinky.” Littleboy studied at Rhode Island School of Design and graduated from Stanford University. He currently resides in San Francisco.
Teaching young wolves new tricks: Wolves are considerably better imitators than dogs
January 31, 2014
Scientists from the Messerli Research Institute at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna have undertaken experiments that suggest that wolves observe one another more closely than dogs and so are better at learning from one another. The scientists believe that cooperation among wolves is the basis of the understanding between dogs and humans.
Their findings have been published in the online journalPLOS ONE.
Wolves were domesticated more than 15,000 years ago and it is widely assumed that the ability of domestic dogs to form close relationships with humans stems from changes during the domestication process. But the effects of domestication on the interactions between the animals have not received much attention. The point has been addressed by Friederike Range and Zsófia Virányi, two members of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna) who work at the Wolf Science Center (WSC) in Ernstbrunn, Niederösterreich.
Wolves copy other wolves solving problems
The scientists found that wolves are considerably better than dogs at opening a container, providing they have previously watched another animal do so. Their study involved 14 wolves and 15 mongrel dogs, all about six months old, hand-reared and kept in packs. Each animal was allowed to observe one of two situations in which a trained dog opened a wooden box, either with its mouth or with its paw, to gain access to a food reward. Surprisingly, all of the wolves managed to open the box after watching a dog solve the puzzle, while only four of the dogs managed to do so. Wolves more frequently opened the box using the method they had observed, whereas the dogs appeared to choose randomly whether to use their mouth or their paw. (continue reading)
Journal Source: (open access!)
Friederike Range, Zsófia Virányi. Wolves Are Better Imitators of Conspecifics than Dogs. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (1): e86559 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086559
Photo Credit: Walter Vorbeck (x)
Please take note that the original research is considering CONSPECIFIC interactions. The journal article is worth a read because it mentions a few studies where dogs were shown to be capable of imitating conspecifics in certain situations (just not this one or a few other cited studies).
It should also be noted that when the article (and the journal text) state that “dogs have become able to accept humans as social partners and thus have adapted their social skills to include interactions with them” (x) they do not mean that dogs perceive humans as pack members.
We humans lack the ability to recognize and replicate many of the signals central to canine body language and communication. While dogs and humans may develop strong social bonds with one another, and each species may modify their behavior to suit interactions with the other, there is absolutely zero evidence that dogs mistake their humans for strangely hairless bipedal dogs.
See, Frank? There’s a difference between a borzoi and a horse.
Which one’s which? The lower one just looks like a baby horse.
Wait is the upper one a baby borzoi then? Damn they really are big.
Is this what you wanted?
Why would you repost the same picture?
It is common knowledge that large dog breeds tend to have shorter lifespans (generally around 10-13 years; for the wolfhound and the great dane, as low as 7-8 years) than smaller dog breeds (some of which can go on for as long as 15-20 years). In fact, one study found that within 74 different breeds, dogs lose about one month of life expectancy per 4.4 pounds (2 kg).
So why does this happen?
The short answer is that the answer is not definitively known. There are currently a number of theories, none perfectly satisfying, and the fact of the matter is that there are probably a number of different reasons why large dogs tend to live shorter lives than small dogs.
Let’s start with probably the most generally accepted explanation for this phenomenon in science today.
First, it should be noted that dogs are not the only species that has this trend. In general, smaller individuals within a species have a tendency to live slightly longer than the larger ones. This is even true of humans (but don’t worry if you’re very tall- remember, these data are generalizations across massive samples of people and there are plenty of other factors that affect longevity).
Dogs have some of the most extreme differences in body form within a single species (as a matter of fact, not only are all dogs in the same species, they’re a subspecies- of the wolf). It’s not a big surprise that within these different forms ages can vary so drastically.
Then why is increased size related to shorter lifespans*? Well, one theory states that it is because the larger animals in a species have more growing to do in the same amount of time as smaller ones do. This means that their bodies have to work harder to build that extra mass- obtain more energy, create more cells- and this leads to faster aging.
The authors of the dog study I mentioned earlier pointed out that many large breeds are more susceptible to cancer than smaller ones are. and Cancer is caused by abnormal cell growth- the rapid growth of large dogs may be what makes them more vulnerable to cancers.
However, it should be noted that this explanation isn’t perfect. There are a number of exceptions to the higher weight = shorter lifespan correlation. Case in point, some of the longest-lived dogs ever are medium-sized dogs, not small dogs.
Bella, a Labrador mix, lived to be 29 years old.
In fact, even though the trend in dogs is that lifespan decreases as weight increases, there is a great deal of variability.
Figure from Dog Longevity- site has links to citations.
Now, if you look at the list of the world’s oldest known dogs, you’ll notice something else: well over half of them are cross-breeds or mutts. This is not quite an anomaly- on average, mixed-breed dogs tend to live longer than purebred dogs. The reason may be that mixed-breed dogs are protected from genetic disorders caused by inbreeding or overbreeding.
Table from Dog Longevity.
Larger breeds of dogs may also be more susceptible to genetic disorders than smaller dogs- at least, the disorders that cause more rapid death or euthanasia.
For example, one of the major reasons owners put their dogs down is because of difficulty or inability to walk. Large dogs, with their higher weights, have a harder time with genetic disorders such as hip and elbow dysplasia, luxating patella, and arthritis.
They are also more likely to die from gastrointestinal problems and developmental disorders than small dogs, likely due to stress on organs from rapid selective breeding for size.
(On the flip side, smaller dogs are more likely to die from endocrine problems than larger dogs. It’s just that the endocrine problems tend to come up later in life than the others.)
Note that overbreeding and inbreeding can have detrimental effects on breeds of any size: just look at the English bulldog, a medium-sized dog at around 40-50 pounds with an average lifespan of 6-7 years.
And then there’s the miniature bull terrier, at 20-30 pounds, with that same painful lifespan of 6-7 years.
An interesting point of fact- while few studies have compared the lifespans of large and small mixed-breed dogs, at least one has found that large mixed dogs still have a shorter lifespan than small mixed dogs (albeit with a smaller difference than between large and small purebreds). So, again, no one factor can explain this phenomenon.
I know this is a slightly depressing topic. Here’s a fact that may cheer you up: thanks likely to modern veterinary science, overall dog lifespan is on the rise right now. Fido lives!
*Increased size WITHIN a species is correlated with shorter lifespans. Between species, however, increased size is related to longer lifespans. Compare a mouse’s lifespan to an elephant’s.
Thanks to dalektable-souffle-girl for submitting this question!
Fleming, J. M., Creevy, K. E., & Promislow, D. E. L. (2011). Mortality in North American Dogs from 1984 to 2004: An Investigation into Age‐, Size‐, and Breed‐Related Causes of Death. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 25(2), 187-198.
Kraus, C., Pavard, S., & Promislow, D. E. (2013). The Size–Life Span Trade-Off Decomposed: Why Large Dogs Die Young. The American Naturalist, 181(4), 492-505.
Patronek, G. J., Waters, D. J., & Glickman, L. T. (1997). Comparative longevity of pet dogs and humans: implications for gerontology research. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 52(3), B171-B178.
List of Oldest Dogs via Wikipedia
Dog Longevity website by Dr. Kelly M. Cassidy